Sculpture References

Dear Womb Curious! 
Thank you for inquiring about the medical data sources I use for my art. 

If you are seeking a medical science-only based model, I encourage you to own one!  They are great.


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Below are some of the sources I’ve used to inform my art:

1) Dr. Rosita Arvigo, DN. Professional  Care Training manual.  Published 2013, 6th edition. pg. 37.
“In the non-pregnant state, the uterus is about 3 inches long, 2 inches wide, and 1 inch thick, 
and weighs 4 ounces. During menstruation, the uterus can weigh as much as 8 ounces.”


2)   Gerard J. Tortora and Sandra Reynolds Grabowski . Principles of Anatomy and Physiologypublished 1996, 8th edition. Pg. 929
“Situated between the urinary bladder and the rectum, the uterus is the size and shape of an inverted pear. In a female who has never been pregnant it is about 7.5 cm (3 in.) long, 5 cm (2 in.) wide, and 2.5 cm (1 in.) thick. It is larger in females who have recently been pregnant and smaller (atrophied) when female sex  hormones levels are low, as occurs while taking birth control pills (see page 943) or after menopause (see page 946).”

3)    Frank Netter, MD.CIBA collection of Medical illustrations, vol. 2, Reproductive System. Published 1954. pg. 111
“Uterine growth is one of the earliest signs of puberty and generally precedes menarche by 1 or 2 years. In 60 percent of girls, the uterus reaches adult size by the 15th year. By this time a difference in proportion of length of the cervix to that of the fundus becomes evident. In the newborn and prepuberal uterus, the relation of cervix to corpus is approximately 1 to 1.
However, in the adult this ratio becomes 1 to 2.”


“When mature the uterus is about 3 in. long. The size at the top measures 2.5 by 2 in. It narrows to a diameter of 1 in, measured at the cervix. Recurrent pregnancies leave the uterus larger than in the nulliparous woman. After the menopause, shrinking and atrophy progress. The senile uterus, with thinned out myometrium, often retrogresses to the size of the preadolescent stage.”

4)   Frank Netter, MD.Atlas of Human Anatomy. Published 2006, 4th edition.Plates 373-375.
“Uterus: Age Changes and Muscle Pattern, Uterus:  Position and Prolapse, Uterus: Ectopic Pregnancy”

5)    Carmine Clemente. Anatomy; A regional atlas of the human body.Published 1997, 4th edition. 
Figures 394-414.

6)    Gunther von Hagens.BodyWorlds: The Anatomical Exhibition of Real Human Bodies.(catalog on the exhibition).
Pages 114-116, 119, 121, 125, 160, 178-9.

 7)    Dr. Ajay M. Parmar,Dr. D P.Agarwal, Dr. Nipa Hathila, Dr. T. C. Singel.  “Sonographic Measurements of Uterus and it’s Correlation with Different Parameters in Parous and Nulliparous Women”  International Journal of Medical Science and Education.  Published by Association for Scientific and Medical Education (ASME) Page 306 Vol.3; Issue: 3;July-Sept 2016 (www.ijmse.com)
“Aim: To determine normal standards of uterine dimensions by using ultrasonography and to find out correlation between size of uterus with age, height, weight and body surface area of parous and nulliparous women.

Material and methods: This study consists 80 women (40 parous&40 nulliparous) had sonography because of abdominal and /or pelvic problem unrelated to uterus. The uterine dimensions are measured and correlated with age, height, weight.

Results: The result shows that the uterine length increases in 21 to 40 age group and decrease in 41 to 60 age group women. The uterine length increase with increase in the body weight, height, and body surface area in both parous and nulliparous women. The size of uterus are more in parous than nulliparous women. 

Conclusion: on the basis of the present study, it was concluded that the uterine length increase in 21 to 40 age group and decrease in 41 to 60 age group women. Positive correlation between uterine length and age, body weight, height, surface area is seen in parous but not in nulliparous women. The uterine length was less in nulliparous than that in parous women with corresponding age, body weight, body height, and body surface area.”


8)    Piiroinen O, Kaihola HL.  “Uterine Size Measured by Ultrasound During the Menstrual Cycle.”  Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1975; 54 (3): 247-50.
 “In the following study changes in the size of non-pregnant uterus were measured by B-scan ultrasonography. Uterine size in different stages of the menstrual cycle was measured ultrasonically in 16 women, whose periods were confirmed to be ovulatory, both by basal body temperature (BBT) and by the radioimmunological measurement of plasma estradiol and progesterone. It was established that the size of the uterus grows significantly towards the end of the menstrual cycle…”

9)  E. Merz, D. Miric-Tesanic, F. Bahlmann, G. Weber and S. Wellek. “Sonographic size of uterus and ovaries in pre- and postmenopausal women”.  Ultrasound Obstet. Gynecol. 7 (1996) 38-42.
 “…Uterine and ovarian size were measured in 765 pre- and postmenopausal women by transvaginal ultrasound.”

“In the premenopausal group, a parity-related enlargement in uterine size was observed between nulliparous and parous women. After the menopause, a significant reduction in uterine size and in the corpus-cervix ratio was observed. The reduction in uterine size was related to years since menopause.”   

“… in the premenopausal group, the mean age ranged from 16 to 52 years (mean 32.4 years); 52 of these patients had never delivered a child, 50 had delivered once and 53 had two or more deliveries in their history. The uterine size showed a progressive growth in length and width, correlated with the parity. Uterine length was 7.3 cm + 0.8 (SD) in the group of nulliparas, 8.3cm +0.8 (SD) in the group of primiparas and 9.2 cm + 0.8 (SD) in the group with two or more deliveries (Table 1).”

 “…Adult uterine and ovarian sizes vary individually…”

10)  Jill E. Langer, MD, Edward R. Oliver, MD, PhD, Anna S. Lev-toaff, MD, Beverly G. Coleman, MD.“Imaging of the Female Pelvis through the Life Cycle”.RadioGraphics October special issue, 2012; 32:1575-1597.(radiographics.rsna.org)
“The appearance of the normal reproductive tract on radiologic images changes dramatically
 over the female patient’s life span, reflecting the influence of hormones on these organs.”


“Table 1: Normal Uterine Size and Shape by Life Stage

Stage                          Uterine Length (CM)                        Uterine body to cervix ratio*

Neonatal                    3.5                                                       2:1

Pediatric                    1-3                                                      1:1

Prepubertal               3-4.5                                                   1-1.5:1

Pubertal                     5-8                                                      1.5:2.1

Reproductive            8-9                                                      2:1

Postmenopausal      3.5-7.5                                                1-1.5:1

*refers to the ratio of the length of the uterine body to the length of the cervix”

11.) National Uterine Fibroid Foundation.  “The Uterus”.  
“The ‘normal’ uterus is typically the size and shape of an upside down pear 
and weighs somewhere around 6 ounces. 
Its dimensional size is about 8-10 cm by 6 cm 
(roughly 3-4 inches by 2 ½ inches).”

12.) Henry Gray (1821-1865). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.  “3d.3. The Uterus”
During menstruation the organ is enlarged, more vascular, and its surfaces rounder;
the external orifice is rounded, its labia swollen, and the lining membrane of the body thickened, softer, and of a darker color.”

After parturition the uterus nearly regains its usual size, weighing about 42 gm.;
but its cavity is larger than in the virgin state, its vessels are tortuous, and its muscular layers are more defined; the external orifice is more marked, and its edges present one or more fissures.”